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SA 4226/MPP 6124 - Wildlife Law and Policy (Shenko)

Finding Conservation Information


Wildlife issues influence many sectors. You will likely find articles in databases which don't focus solely or primarily on animals and conservation.

Find 3 scientific articles which discuss your legal issue by thinking about what sector would be influenced or interested in this legislation. 

For example, public animals on private lands would be of interest to hunters as well as farmers. Therefore, wildlife conservation and agricultural resources would be a good place to start. 

Scientific Articles on Conservation

For this class, you will be researching a wildlife issue of your choice. There is no date range limit for this articles, but more recent is always better. 

It will likely be easier to first find some articles on your issue. These should point you to the important legislation, policies, and parties related to your issue. 

You will need to use 3+ articles which look at the conservation background of your issue.

JSTOR may seem like an unusual choice but has a lot of legal and wildlife related journals. You can use the "Browse" function to limit down to legal-related content.

Finding Laws and Cases

Laws and Cases

Hopefully, some of your scientific articles will have referred to legal cases or court proceedings.

You can look them up in Westlaw or search for other related cases by topic.

Check out the Brigham Young University Library's guide to understanding legal citations: 

Using WestLaw

You will be using at least 3 court documents for your project. While legal reviews don't count, they can be very valuable in learning more  about your issue. 

In order to get the legal citation, highlight the case at the top of the record and click the pop-up.

Using GoogleScholar for Legal Research


  • United States Supreme Court (since 1791)
  • U.S. Courts of Appeals and U.S. District Courts (since 1923)
  • supreme courts and intermediate appellate courts from all states (since 1950)
  • better result relevancy than Westlaw
  • citation service that allows you to find subsequent cases and legal articles


  • not often updated so cases may have been withdrawn from court
  • does not include unpublished cases, statutes, table opinions, or reference support

When using GoogleScholar for legal research, remember to click Case Law as a results limiter. You can then narrow down by a specific court, if you wish.

To see subsequent and related cases, click the Cited By link under the relevant case law.

Formatting your Bibliography

Chicago Author-Date SPECIAL

You will be using Chicago Author-Date as your citation style. However, you will be including these citations as footnotes rather than as references at the end. 

In-Text Citations

When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Ritter 1991). Fisher (2009) reaches more or less the same conclusion.


Several studies have shown that "F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana" (O'Donnell 1998, 2044).

More than one author 
(Smith and Johnson 1998, 14) 
(Smith, Johnson, and White 2001, 42)

More than three authors
(Smith et al. 1998, 203)

No author
(Plagiarism and You 2002, 142) 

Journal Articles

Last name, first name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): pages. URL or DOI. 

Novak, William J. 2008. "The Myth of the 'Weak' American State." American Historical Review 113:752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752

Journal article with multiple authors
Include all authors, regardless of number, in the References List.

Last name, first name, and First name Last name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): pages. URL, if no DOI available. 

Choi, Stephen J., and G. Mitu Gulati. 2008. "Bias in Judicial Citations: A Window into the Behavior of Judges?" Journal of Legal Studies 37 (1): 87-129. doi:10.1086/588263.

Legal Documents

Citations in predominantly legal works generally follow one of two guides: (1) The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation; or (2) the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation. Chicago recommends using one of these systems for citing legal and public documents.

14.276 Cases or court decisions
"Full case names in citations including the abbreviation v., are set in roman in notes; short forms in subsequent citations are italicized (as are full case names mentioned in textual sentences). Full citations include volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable), the abbreviated name of the court (if not indicated by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses, and other relevant information. A single page number designates the opening page of a decision; an additional number designates an actual page cited. In a shorted citation, at is used to cite a particular page; absence of at implies reference to the decision as a whole."


United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000).

Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988)

14.282 Laws and statues
"Bills of joint resolutions that have been signed into law - "public laws," or statues - are first published separately, as slip laws, and then collected in the annual bound volumes of the United States Statues at Large (abbreviated in legal style as "Stat."), where they are referred to as session laws. Later they are incorporated into the United States Code (U.S.C.). "


1. Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2012).

2. Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 101 (2012). 

Setting up RefWorks


RefWorks is a new way to collect, manage, and organize research.  You can read, annotate, organize, and cite your research as well as collaborate by sharing collections.

From simple bibliographies to papers formatted with in-text citations or footnotes, RefWorks handles it all. ​To learn more about RefWorks, use our RefWorks research guide.

To create a RefWorks account:

  1. Go to the link below and click Create account
  2. Fill in your information, making sure to use your DelVal email address.  
  3. Go to your inbox and click the email link to complete the activation process. 

Already have an account? Just go to the link below and click "Log In"

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