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SA 4226/MPP 6124 - Wildlife Law and Policy (Shenko)

Finding Conservation Information

Scientific Articles on Conservation

For this class, you will be researching a wildlife issue of your choice. There is no date range limit for this articles, but more recent is always better. 

It will likely be easier to first find some articles on your issue. These should point you to the important legislation, policies, and parties related to your issue. 

You will need to use 3+ articles which look at the conservation background of your issue.

JSTOR may seem like an unusual choice but has a lot of legal and wildlife related journals. You can use the "Browse" function to limit down to legal-related content.

Finding Laws and Cases

Using Nexis Uni

You will be using at least 3 court documents for your project. While legal reviews don't count, they can be very valuable in learning more  about your issue. 

Searching by Topic

For example, I might look up public wildlife and private land. I might try farming or specific animal as a search term as well.

  1. Click the "Cases" button on the left of the Guided Search. 
  2. Enter your terms in the "Search in all Cases for" box. 
  3. You will retrieve all the case law concerning that idea.  You can also remove the Federal court limiter and search state courts.

Searching by Case Law Citation

I might look up 436 U.S. 529 or another legal citation which appeared in my textbook or in one of my peer-reviewed articles.

  1. Click the "Cases" button on the left of the Guided Search. 
  2. Enter citation such as 41 U.S. 367 in the "Search in all Cases for" box. 
  3. The Case Summary and Lawyer's Summary will provide brief overview of the case law. 
  4. You can also Sherpardize the document to find related legal documents. 

Searching by Law Review Articles

If I wanted more information about the Lacey Act in context, I would use this method.

  1. Click the "Law Review" button on the left of the Guided Search. 
  2. Enter your terms in the "Search in all Law Reviews for" box. 
  3. You can use keyword or search for a specific act.
  4. You will retrieve all the case law concerning that idea.  You can also remove the Federal court limiter and search state courts.

Using GoogleScholar for Legal Research

Pros

  • United States Supreme Court (since 1791)
  • U.S. Courts of Appeals and U.S. District Courts (since 1923)
  • supreme courts and intermediate appellate courts from all states (since 1950)
  • better result relevancy than Nexis Uni
  • citation service that allows you to find subsequent cases and legal articles

Cons

  • not often updated so cases may have been withdrawn from court
  • does not include unpublished cases, statutes, table opinions, or reference support

When using GoogleScholar for legal research, remember to click Case Law as a results limiter. You can then narrow down by a specific court, if you wish.

To see subsequent and related cases, click the Cited By link under the relevant case law.

Formatting your Bibliography

Chicago Style for the Sciences

Chicago Author-Date style may also be referred to as:

  • Author-Date System/Style
  • Parenthetical
  • Chicago Scientific

These are all the same thing!

Paraphrasing and In-Text Citations

Paraphrasing
When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Example:
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Ritter 1991). Fisher (2009) reaches more or less the same conclusion.


In-Text Citations

Example:
Several studies have shown that "F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana" (O'Donnell 1998, 2044).

More than one author 
(Smith and Johnson 1998, 14) 
(Smith, Johnson, and White 2001, 42)

More than three authors
(Smith et al. 1998, 203)

No author
(Plagiarism and You 2002, 142) 

Journal Articles

Last name, first name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): pages. URL, if no DOI available. 

Example:
Novak, William J. 2008. "The Myth of the 'Weak' American State." American Historical Review 113:752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752

Journal article with multiple authors
Include all authors, regardless of number, in the References List.

Last name, first name, and First name Last name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): pages. URL, if no DOI available. 

Example:
Choi, Stephen J., and G. Mitu Gulati. 2008. "Bias in Judicial Citations: A Window into the Behavior of Judges?" Journal of Legal Studies 37 (January): 87-129. doi:10.1086/588263.

Books

Last name, First name. Year. Title. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.

Example:
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.


Books with multiple authors
Include all authors, regardless of number, in the References List. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors. 

Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Year. Title. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.

Example:
Heatherton, Joyce, James Fitzgilroy, and Jackson Hsu. 2008. Meteors and Mudslides: A Trip through the Earth. New York: Knopf. 


Chapter in an Edited Book

Last name, First name of chapter author. Year. Chapter Title. In Book Title, edited by Editor, pages. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.

Example:
Gould, Glenn. 1984. "Streisand as Schwarzkopf." In the Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage. 

Birds of North America

Marti, C. D. (1992) Barn Owl. The Birds of North America (A. Poole, Ed.) Ithaca: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; Retrieved from The Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org

Government reports

Last name, first name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Year. Title. Report submitted to Department on date.

Example:
McKenna-Foster, Andrew, Lou Perrotti, and Elizabeth Sorrows. 2015. American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) Survey on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on October 22, 2015.

Images

If there is no title, include a description of the image instead. 

Artist or creator. Year. "Title." Digital image. Website title. Access date, if no publication date available. URL

Example:
Ryder, Malcolm. 2006. “Driving Action with Values.” Digital image. Orchestra. Accessed April 11, 2017. http://www.malcolmryder.com/archives/2006/07/

"Cassowary on Beach." 2019. Digital image. Guinness World Records. Accessed March 4, 2020. https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/Images/cassowary-header-2_tcm25-568945.jpg

Legal Documents

Citations in predominantly legal works generally follow one of two guides: (1) The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation; or (2) the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation. Chicago recommends using one of these systems for citing legal and public documents.

14.276 Cases or court decisions
"Full case names in citations including the abbreviation v., are set in roman in notes; short forms in subsequent citations are italicized (as are full case names mentioned in textual sentences). Full citations include volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable), the abbreviated name of the court (if not indicated by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses, and other relevant information. A single page number designates the opening page of a decision; an additional number designates an actual page cited. In a shorted citation, at is used to cite a particular page; absence of at implies reference to the decision as a whole."

Example:

United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000).

Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988)

14.282 Laws and statues
"Bills of joint resolutions that have been signed into law - "public laws," or statues - are first published separately, as slip laws, and then collected in the annual bound volumes of the United States Statues at Large (abbreviated in legal style as "Stat."), where they are referred to as session laws. Later they are incorporated into the United States Code (U.S.C.). "

Examples:

1. Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2012).

2. Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 101 (2012). 

Newspaper Articles

It is usually sufficient to cite newspaper and magazine articles entirely within the text. If, for some reason, a reference list entry is needed, the year of publication is separated from the month and day. 

Last name, first name. Year. "Title." Newspaper, Month day, pages if available. URL if available. 

Example:

Carey, Benedict. 2008. "For the Brain, Remembering is like Reliving." New York Times, September 4. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/05/science/05brain.html. 

Pamphlets

If no author is available, begin citation with title.

Last name, First name if available. Year. Title. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.

Example:

Lifestyles in Retirement, 1996. New York: TIAA-CREF. 

Presentation Abstract

Example:

van Ballegooie M, Mears S, wilson K. 2017. Deep Dive into KBART [presentation abstract]. N Am Seria Inters Group. http://www.nasig.org/conference-proceedings/2017/KBART-van-ballegooie

Theses or Dissertations

Titles of unpublished works appear in quotation marks, not italics. 

Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Thesis type, Academic institution. Database name, if available. URL, if available.

Example:

Choi, Mihwa. 2008. "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty." PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Vedrashko, Ilya. 2006. "Advertising in Computer Games," Msater's thesis, MIT. http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/IlyaVedrashko2006.pdf. 

Websites

Organization or author name. Year. "Webpage title." Owner of webpage. Access date, if last modified date is not available. URL. 

Examples:

Microsoft Corporation. 2006. "WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String Variable." Microsoft Help and Support. Last modified November 23, 2006. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730.

Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. 2008. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. Accessed July 19, 2016. http://epl.org/library /strategic-plan-00.html. 

Is the example you need missing?

Contact the Library at library@delval.edu to request a new example and citation help!

Setting up RefWorks

RefWorks

RefWorks is a new way to collect, manage, and organize research.  You can read, annotate, organize, and cite your research as well as collaborate by sharing collections.

From simple bibliographies to papers formatted with in-text citations or footnotes, RefWorks handles it all. ​To learn more about RefWorks, use our RefWorks research guide.

To create a RefWorks account:

  1. Go to the link below and click Use login from my institution
  2. Fill in your information, making sure to use your DelVal email address.  
  3. Go to your inbox and click the email link to complete the activation process. 

Already have an account? Just go to the link below and click "Log In"

Getting Help