If you have answered "yes" to these five questions you have probably located a scientific article.
Research articles are also often known as scientific or peer-reviewed articles. If the article is NOT written by the person or group who did the research, it is NOT a peer-reviewed or scientific article. Research articles are important for knowing what new discoveries have been made. This is why it is important to use recent articles, since they will be the first things published on a new scientific development.
Here's a quick overview of how to identify these journal articles:
Chicago Author-Date style may also be referred to as:
These are all the same thing!
When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Ritter 1991). Fisher (2009) reaches more or less the same conclusion.
Several studies have shown that "F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana" (O'Donnell 1998, 2044).
More than one author
(Smith and Johnson 1998, 14)
(Smith, Johnson, and White 2001, 42)
More than three authors
(Smith et al. 1998, 203)
(Plagiarism and You 2002, 142)
Last name, first name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): pages. URL or DOI.
Novak, William J. 2008. "The Myth of the 'Weak' American State." American Historical Review 113:752-72. doi:10.1086/ahr.113.3.752
Journal article with multiple authors
Include all authors, regardless of number, in the References List.
Last name, first name, and First name Last name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): pages. URL, if no DOI available.
Choi, Stephen J., and G. Mitu Gulati. 2008. "Bias in Judicial Citations: A Window into the Behavior of Judges?" Journal of Legal Studies 37 (1): 87-129. doi:10.1086/588263.
Last name, First name. Year. Title. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.
Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin.
Books with multiple authors
Include all authors, regardless of number, in the References List. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors.
Last name, First name, and First name Last name. Year. Title. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.
Heatherton, Joyce, James Fitzgilroy, and Jackson Hsu. 2008. Meteors and Mudslides: A Trip through the Earth. New York: Knopf.
Chapter in an Edited Book
Last name, First name of chapter author. Year. Chapter Title. In Book Title, edited by Editor, pages. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.
Gould, Glenn. 1984. "Streisand as Schwarzkopf." In the Glenn Gould Reader, edited by Tim Page, 308-11. New York: Vintage.
Marti, C. D. (1992) Barn Owl. The Birds of North America (A. Poole, Ed.) Ithaca: Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; Retrieved from The Birds of North America: https://birdsna.org
Last name, first name, First name Last name, and First name Last name. Year. Title. Report submitted to Department on date.
McKenna-Foster, Andrew, Lou Perrotti, and Elizabeth Sorrows. 2015. American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) Survey on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Report submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on October 22, 2015.
If there is no title, include a description of the image instead.
Artist or creator. Year. "Title." Digital image. Website title. Access date, if no publication date available. URL
Ryder, Malcolm. 2006. “Driving Action with Values.” Digital image. Orchestra. Accessed April 11, 2017. http://www.malcolmryder.com/archives/2006/07/
"Cassowary on Beach." 2019. Digital image. Guinness World Records. Accessed March 4, 2020. https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/Images/cassowary-header-2_tcm25-568945.jpg
Citations in predominantly legal works generally follow one of two guides: (1) The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation; or (2) the ALWD Guide to Legal Citation. Chicago recommends using one of these systems for citing legal and public documents.
14.276 Cases or court decisions
"Full case names in citations including the abbreviation v., are set in roman in notes; short forms in subsequent citations are italicized (as are full case names mentioned in textual sentences). Full citations include volume number, abbreviated name of the reporter(s), the ordinal series number of the reporter (if applicable), the abbreviated name of the court (if not indicated by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses, and other relevant information. A single page number designates the opening page of a decision; an additional number designates an actual page cited. In a shorted citation, at is used to cite a particular page; absence of at implies reference to the decision as a whole."
United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000).
Profit Sharing Plan v. Mbank Dallas, N.A., 683 F. Supp. 592 (N.D. Tex. 1988)
14.282 Laws and statues
"Bills of joint resolutions that have been signed into law - "public laws," or statues - are first published separately, as slip laws, and then collected in the annual bound volumes of the United States Statues at Large (abbreviated in legal style as "Stat."), where they are referred to as session laws. Later they are incorporated into the United States Code (U.S.C.). "
1. Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2012).
2. Homeland Security Act of 2002, 6 U.S.C. § 101 (2012).
Personal communications, including email and text messages and direct messages sent through social media, are usually cited in the text only; they are rarely included in a reference list.
(Sam Gomez, Facebook message to author, August 1, 2017)
It is usually sufficient to cite newspaper and magazine articles entirely within the text. If, for some reason, a reference list entry is needed, the year of publication is separated from the month and day.
Last name, first name. Year. "Title." Newspaper, Month day, pages if available. URL if available.
Carey, Benedict. 2008. "For the Brain, Remembering is like Reliving." New York Times, September 4. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/05/science/05brain.html.
If no author is available, begin citation with title.
Last name, First name if available. Year. Title. Publisher's location: Publisher's name.
Lifestyles in Retirement, 1996. New York: TIAA-CREF.
van Ballegooie M, Mears S, wilson K. 2017. Deep Dive into KBART [presentation abstract]. N Am Seria Inters Group. http://www.nasig.org/conference-proceedings/2017/KBART-van-ballegooie
If there is a photographer or illustrator use his or her name in place of the author. If there is a caption, use the caption in place of the title of an article, or add the caption title in quotation marks with proper capitalization. Add a page number where the image is found.
Last name, first name. Year. "Article Title." Journal volume (issue, if available): page, figure or table name. URL
Talbot, David. 2007. "Saving Holland." Technology Review 110, no. 4: 52, figure 3.
When citing (not reprinting) an illustration from a book, article or other sources, cite the source first, then provide the page number where the illustration is located in text citation, preceding the figure number, with a comma between them. When citing illustrations, the abbreviation fig. may be used for figure, but table, map, plate, and other illustration forms are spelled out.
... (Anderson 2018, fig. 8.1)...
(Smith 2019, 123, fig. 3)
If you are including a figure or table in your paper, not just referring to it, it requires a credit line. A credit line usually appears at the end of a caption of a figure, or in a source note of a table. Figures and tables must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc) in the order in which they appear within the text, i.e. the first figure is labeled "Figure 1", the second "Figure 2", and so on.
Refer to each figure or table in text by their number, e.g. figure 1, table 4, etc.
If you are WRITING FOR PUBLICATION (for a journal, conference paper, thesis, website, etc) you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner to include the figure or table in your work, and state the permission in the source citation as 'Reprinted with permission from ...' While students don't usually require publisher permission to include figures or tables in assignments, you should still include the credit line with copyright statement.
If the work being credited is listed in the reference list, only a shortened form needs appear in the credit line.
Figure or table number. Figure or table name. Reprinted from Author (Year, page).
Figure 1. Surgical mask (left) and N95 mask (right). Reprinted from Doyle and McCutcheon (2015, 24).
Titles of unpublished works appear in quotation marks, not italics.
Last name, First name. Year. "Title." Thesis type, Academic institution. Database name, if available. URL, if available.
Choi, Mihwa. 2008. "Contesting Imaginaires in Death Rituals during the Northern Song Dynasty." PhD diss., University of Chicago. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
Vedrashko, Ilya. 2006. "Advertising in Computer Games," Master's thesis, MIT. http://cms.mit.edu/research/theses/IlyaVedrashko2006.pdf.
Organization or author name. Year. "Webpage title." Owner of webpage. Access date, if last modified date is not available. URL.
Microsoft Corporation. 2006. "WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String Variable." Microsoft Help and Support. Last modified November 23, 2006. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730.
Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. 2008. “Evanston Public Library Strategic Plan, 2000-2010: A Decade of Outreach.” Evanston Public Library. Accessed July 19, 2016. http://epl.org/library /strategic-plan-00.html.
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