Please note, the 7th edition of the APA includes some changes from the previous edition. Changes are indicated below by highlight.
A title page is required for all APA Style papers, unless noted otherwise by your professor. Students should follow the guidelines fo their instructor when determining which title page format is mst appropriate to use. If not instructed otherwise, students should include the following elements on the title page.
NOTE: Student title pages do not require a running head, unlike a professional title page.
University attended, including department or division
Course number and name
Assignment due date
When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Luna, 2020).
Luna (2020) reaches more or less the same conclusion.
Two or more sources within same parentheses
Order the citations of two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list (including citations that would otherwise shorten to et al.). Separate the citations with semicolons.
Several studies (Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017))...
For people with osteoarthritis, "painful joints should be moved through a full range of motion every day to maintain flexibility and to slow deterioration of cartilage" (Flores, 2019, p. 20).
(Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, p. 210)
More than three authors
(Smith et al., 2014, p. 203)
(Title Page #)
(Plagiarism and You 1942)
("Five Ways to Protect Yourself" 1993)
No page number
Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation:
(Anderson, 2013, para. 1).
Start the reference list on a new page after the txt and before any tables, figures, and/or appendices. Label the reference list "References," capitalized, in bold, and centered.
Double-space all reference list entries (including between and within references).
Use a hanging indent for all references, meaning that the first line of each reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented by 0.5 in.
Works are listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first listed author.
Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title, sentence style capitalization. Journal title, volume(issue, if available), pages. URL, if no DOI available
Ahmann, E. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31
Journal article with multiple authors
Last name, Initials., & Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title, sentence style capitalization. Journal title, volume(issue, if available), pages. URL, if no DOI available
McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126
When a source has twenty-two or more authors, include first twenty-one … last listed author.
Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kitler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woolen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetman, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the americna Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. http://doi.org/fg6rf9
Last name, Intials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Publisher's name.
Burgess, R. (2019). rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.
Books with multiple authors
Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization (edition, if available). Publisher's name.
Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.
Chapter in edited book
Last name, Initials. (Year). Chapter title, sentence style capitalization. In Editor (eds.), Title, sentence style capitalization (pages). Publisher's name.
Weinstock, R., Leong, G., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press.
Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)
Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)
To cite the reference in text, give the case name, in italics, and the year.
Name v. Name (Year)
(Name v. Name, Year)
Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)
(Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)
In APA Style, most legal materials are cited in the standard legal citation style used for legal references across all disciplines.
A statute is a law or act passed by a legislative body. As with court decisions, statutes exist on both the federal and state levels, such as an act by Congress or by a state government.
Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). URL
Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015). https://www.congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf
The in-text citation format for a federal statute is similar to that for other APA Style references. Cite the name of the statute and the year.
Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (2006)
(Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 2006)
Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization (Report number, if available). Publisher's name.URL.
National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf
Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Journal name, volume, starting page.
Martin, L. H. (1991). Case worker liability for the negligent handling of child abuse reports. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 60, 191.
Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year, month day). Title, sentence style capitalization. Newspaper name. URL
Guariano, B. (2017), December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/12/04/how-will-humanity-react-to-alien-life-psychologists-have-some-predictions
Author or organization name. (Date of publication, if available). Webpage title. URL
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm
When no date is listed
Author or organization name. (n.d.). Webpage title. URL
National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika. https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/pages/what-employers-should-do-to-protect-rns-from-zika
Account name. (Date of publication). Video name i [Video]. Webpage title. URL
Asian Boss. (2020, June 5). World’s leading vaccine expert fact-checks COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy: Stay curious #22 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQdLDMLrYIA
(Asian Boss, 2020; Harvard University, 2019)