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Overview of Healthcare Administration Resources

Finding Research

Welcome

Welcome to the Research Guide for the Healthcare Administration program! Please use the left menu to navigate library resources. For research and citation assistance, email Elise Georgulis, Graduate Studies Librarian, at elise.georgulis@gmail.com. 

Databases

Websites

Interlibrary Loan

If a book or article you want is not available, use Interlibrary Loan (ILL). The Library can order books and articles from other libraries. This process takes few days but is completely free for DelVal students, faculty, and staff.

Before you submit an ILL, check Google Scholar or Summon to see if we have immediate access or if it is freely available online.

Identifying Peer-Reviewed Literature

Checklist for Peer-Reviewed Research Article

  Did the author(s) of the article do the actual research?
  Can you find a statement about when the article was accepted for publication?
  Is there a sizable list of references?
  Do the authors assume you are familiar with their topic?
  Is it challenging to read?

If you have answered "yes" to these five questions you have probably located a scientific article.

Peer Review Process

Research Articles

Research articles are also often known as scientific or peer-reviewed articles. If the article is NOT written by the person or group who did the research, it is NOT a peer-reviewed or scientific article. Research articles are important for knowing what new discoveries have been made. This is why it is important to use recent articles, since they will be the first things published on a new scientific development. 

Here's a quick overview of how to identify these journal articles:

  • written by the scientist(s) who actually did the research
  • follows a specific format 
    • abstract
    • introduction
    • materials & methods
    • results
    • conclusions
    • references 
  • assumes reader already knows background information about the topic has been evaluated by experts
  • Tip:  Look for a statement about when the article was accepted for publication. Most peer-reviewed articles will include one.
 
Example of a Research Article

 

Review Articles

Review articles are written when authors read and summarize research on a topic. Review articles are useful for learning about what kind of research has been done previously on a topic.
 
Here's a quick overview of how to identify these articles:
  • current state of knowledge in the field
  • recent developments 
  • limitations of previous research
  • suggestions for future research
Example of a review article

 

Popular Press Articles

Popular press articles are also often known as non-scientific articles. They are most useful for very current or general information. 

Here's a quick overview of how to identify these articles:

  • about current events, opinions, and general information
  • include color photos and everyday product advertisements
  • written by journalists/reporters, staff or freelance writers
  • easy to understand writing

Popular press articles are often published as a reaction to a research article, making the information available to the general public.

Setting up RefWorks

RefWorks

RefWorks is a new way to collect, manage, and organize research.  You can read, annotate, organize, and cite your research as well as collaborate by sharing collections.

From simple bibliographies to papers formatted with in-text citations or footnotes, RefWorks handles it all. ​To learn more about RefWorks, use our RefWorks research guide.

To create a RefWorks account:

  1. Go to the link below and click Create account
  2. Fill in your information, making sure to use your DelVal email address.  
  3. Go to your inbox and click the email link to complete the activation process. 

Already have an account? Just go to the link below and click "Log In"

Online Tutorials

RefWorks screencasts are available 24/7 on ProQuest's YouTube Channel. 

Click here to begin watching.

Getting Help

The Writing Center

The Writing Center is staffed by DelVal undergraduate peer tutors who help with writing assignments in all your courses. We view writing as a process that involves planning, reading, drafting, revising, and editing—writing with substance involves discovering your meaning through brainstorming, sharing, and getting lots of feedback.

Tutors help you gain a fresh perspective on the writing process, and can assist with any stage of the process:  choosing a topic or working through writer's block, generating ideas, creating an outline, sharpening a thesis, arranging and organizing paragraphs, citing correctly and fluently, editing grammar and mechanics, and more.

Instructors receive a copy of the tutor report completed during the session, to illustrate your engagement with the writing process and meeting the demands of writing across disciplines.

Services are on a walk-in basis, so no appointment is necessary. Schedules are posted in the Writing Center, on Inside DelVal, and on professors' Blackboard course pages.

Tutors look forward to working with you!

Graduate Studies Librarian

Profile Photo
Elise Georgulis
Contact:
Graduate Studies Librarian
elise.georgulis@delval.edu
215-489-2386 (ZOOM phone). Please send me an email to set up an appointment.

AMA Style

Getting Started

This style guide is borrowed from the James Cook University Library. They have made it publicly available through Creative Commons license.

AMA Style is a variation of the Vancouver system that is used by the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and other publications by the AMA.  We are currently following the 11th edition of the AMA style guide.

AMA is a documentary-note style, which means you put a number in your text to cite sources of information and the reference list is in numerical order.

In text citations are in superscript1 and in order of citation (the first citation is 1 the next is 2).  If you use the same source again, you keep the same number (the source you used for the first citation is always 1, even if you use it again after 6).

General Notes:

  • The major parts of a reference are Authors. Title of part. Title of Whole. Publication details (including copyright/publication year). Online details.  Each section is separated by a full stop.
  • The authors follow the pattern of Surname Initials (e.g. Brown JA) and are separated by a comma.
    • If there are more than six authors, only list the first three names, then shorten with et al. (e.g. Smith AA, Jones BA, Bloggs JC, et al.)
  • The title of the part (journal article, book chapter or web object) is always in sentence case and not in italics.
  • The title of the whole (book or journal) is usually in Title Case and in italics - except for web sites and unpublished material.
  • The publication details change for the type of source you are citing (journal article, book chapter, etc).  See the full details in the guide for more information.
  • Online details:  with electronic sources, you always use the DOI if you have one.  If not, use a URL if it is relevant.
  • If you use a URL, you must include an Accessed date.

Manual

Quick Cite

The following guidelines are based on the minimum requirements for AMA citations.  AMA style requires this core information for each citation (additional details can be added where appropriate – see the relevant pages in the full JCU AMA guide).

Pay close attention to punctuation use in the examples – including case, italics, the order of dates and spaces.

Journal Articles

With DOI

  1. Author(s). Article title: subtitle. Journal Abbreviation. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages. DOI

A DOI is preferable to a URL if one is available. No accessed date is required for the DOI because it is a permanent identifier.

With URL

  1. Author(s). Article title: subtitle. Journal Abbreviation. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages. Accessed date. URL

Print journal article

  1. Author(s). Article title: subtitle. Journal Abbreviation. Year;vol(issue no.):inclusive pages.

Examples:

  1. Yazigi JA Jr, Anauate Nicolao F, Archetti Netto N, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging reproducibility for rotator cuff partial tears in patients up to 60 years. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2019;20:383-8. doi:10.1186/s12891-019-2760-4
  2. Moore Y, Shotton E, Brown R, Gremmel J, Lindsey S, Pankey J. Effects of incentive spirometry on perceived dyspnea in patients hospitalized with pneumonia. Medsurg Nursing. 2018;27(1):19-23. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://search-proquest-com.elibrary.jcu.edu.au/docview/2006752768?accountid=16285
  3. Economopoulos KJ, Brockmeier SF. Rotator cuff tears in overhead athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2012;31(4):675-692.
  4. Laver  KE, Adey‐Wakeling Z, Crotty M, Lannin NA, George S, Sherrington C. Telerehabilitation services for stroke. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2020;(1):CD010255. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010255.pub3

Books (whole book)

  1. Author(s) or Editor(s) [if editors, include ed or eds]. Book Title. Edition number [if not the first edition]. Publisher’s name; Copyright year.  Accessed date [only if using URL]. DOI or URL [if online]

Examples:

  1. Drake RL, Vogl W, Mitchell AWM, Gray H. Gray's Anatomy for Students. 4th ed. Elsevier; 2020.
  2. Cameron P, Little M, Mitra B, Deasy C, eds. Textbook of Adult Emergency Medicine. 5th ed. Elsevier; 2020.
  3. Vieira AR.Genetic Basis of Oral Health Conditions. Springer International Publishing; 2019. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-14485-2
  4. World Health Organization. Health Worker Roles in Providing Safe Abortion Care and Post-abortion Contraception. World Health Organization; 2015. Accessed August 12, 2020. https://srhr.org/safeabortion/

Book chapter

  1. Author(s) of chapter. Title of chapter. In: Editor(s), ed. or eds. Title of Book. Edition number [if not the first edition]. Publisher’s name; Copyright year:inclusive pages. Accessed date [only if using URL]. DOI or URL [if online]

Examples:

  1. Smith JV. Shoulder dislocations. In: Fowler GC, ed. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care. Elsevier; 2020:1163-1167. Accessed August 6, 2020. https://www-clinicalkey-com-au.elibrary.jcu.edu.au/#!/content/book/3-s2.0-B9780323476331001745
  2. Shaparin N, Shah A, Gritsenko K. Pharmacological agents: opioids. In: Urman RD, Vadivelu N, eds. Perioperative Pain Management. Oxford University Press; 2013:29-37. Accessed November 25, 2012. https://jcu.eblib.com.au/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1274300
  3. Trabulsy P. Complementary and alternative medicine. In: Stein GS, Luebbers KP, eds. Cancer: Prevention, Early Detection, Treatment and Recovery. 2nd ed. Wiley Blackwell; 2019:499-530. doi:10.1002/9781119645214.ch27

Web pages

  1. Author(s). Title of page or object. Name of website. Date published. Updated date. Accessed date. URL

Examples:

  1. Hughes GRV, Erb N. The Antiphospholipid (Hughes) Syndrome. LUPUS UK. Accessed May 5, 2021. https://www.lupusuk.org.uk/medical/lupus-diagnosis-treatment/diagnosis-of-lupus/associated-illnesses/hughes-syndrome/
  2. Department of Health & Human Services. Anaphylaxis. Better Health Channel. Updated August, 2014. Accessed August 31, 2020. https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/ConditionsAndTreatments/anaphylaxis
  3. Hand hygiene: Why, how & when. World Health Organization. Updated August, 2009. Accessed August 12, 2020. https://www.who.int/gpsc/5may/Hand_Hygiene_Why_How_and_When_Brochure.pdf

Journals & Cochrane Reviews

Standard article pattern (print):

Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp.

Examples:

  1. Chiang HC, Huang V, Cornelius LA. Cancer and itch. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2011;30(2):107-112.
  2. Nejad AG, Kheradmand A. Five rare psychiatric syndromes co-occurring together. Neurosciences. 2009;14(1):91-3.
  3. Voigt C, Grasse P, Rex K, Hetz S, Speakman J. Bat breath reveals metabolic substrate use in free-ranging vampires. J Comp Physiol B. 2008;178(1):9-16.

Standard article pattern (electronic):

Author AA, Author BB. Title of article. Journal Abbreviation. Year;volume(issue):pp-pp. Accessed Month DD, YYYY. DOI or URL

Examples:

  1. Economopoulos KJ, Brockmeier SF. Rotator cuff tears in overhead athletes. Clin Sports Med. 2012;31(4):675-692. doi:10.1016/j.csm.2012.07.005
  2. Finnan RP, Crosby LA. Partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010;19(4):609-616. Accessed April 26, 2012. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1058274609004662
  3. Ho DTN, Le TPT, Wolbers M, et al. Risk factors of Streptococcus suis infection in Vietnam. A case-control study. PLoS One. 2011;6(3):e17604. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017604

Notes:

  • There are no spaces between the year, volume, issue number and page numbers.
  • Some online journals do not have page numbers. Use the article number instead. Reference 6 is an example.
  • If there is a DOI you should always include it at the end of the reference. 
  • You don't need to include a URL if there is a DOI, and you only need to include an Accessed date if you have used a URL.
  • There is no full stop after the DOI or URL

Journal Abbreviations:

  • The Journal Abbreviations can be found by looking at the Journal Record in the NLMA catalogue (PubMed).  If your title is not in the PubMed catalogue, the Manual offers advice for abbreviating journal titles in Chapter 13. For words that aren't in Chapter 13's list, you can look up the keywords from the title in the NMLA catalogue or the CASSI search tool to see how other titles with the same word have been abbreviated.
  • One word titles are never abbreviated, and the complete title can always be used if an abbreviation cannot be found.

Cochrane Reviews

Cochrane Reviews are supposed to be cited as electronic journal articles.  Articles are given article numbers instead of page numbers. Place the article number (without "Art no") in the place of the page numbers for a normal journal article.  There is no volume number for Cochrane reviews, so skip straight from the year to the issue number.  Always use the doi instead of a URL for Cochrane reviews:

Examples

  1. Shepherd E, Grivell RM. Aspirin (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;(7):CD012129. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012129.pub3
  2. Palmer MJ, Henschke N, Villanueva G, et al. Targeted client communication via mobile devices for improving sexual and reproductive health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;(8):CD013680. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013680
  3. Palareti L, Melotti G, Cassis F, Nevitt SJ, Iorio A. Psychological interventions for people with hemophilia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;(3):CD010215. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010215.pub2

In-Text Citations

Authors

When mentioned in the text, only surnames of authors are used. For a 2-author reference, list both surnames; for references with more than 2 authors or authors and a group, include the first author’s surname followed by “et al”.

Superscript numbers

The numbers in text are in superscript1 and occur at the end of the clause in which you used the information. They occur outside “quotation marks,”2 commas,3 (parentheses)4 and full stops.5 However, they occur inside semicolons6; and colons7:

Do not leave a space between the last letter or punctuation mark and the number.

Re-use numbers for the same citation

Citations should be numbered sequentially – that is, the first source you cite is 1, the second source is 2 and so on.

However, once you have given a source a number, it will keep that number throughout your paper. So, if you use your first source again, no matter how often you use it, it is still 1.

 

Citing more than one work at a time

Use commas to show that more than one work is being cited, and use hyphens for several works that would be numbered sequentially:

These side effects can have implications for the patient's mental health, as numerous studies have shown.1,3,6-9

Relationship between in-text citations and reference list

Your reference list follows the order of the numbers used in the text. The first source you cite in the text is 1 and the reader will look for number 1 in the reference list to find the full citation; the fifth source you use is 5 and the full citation is listed at number 5 in the reference list (and so on).

Notes:

Avoid placing a superscript reference citation immediately after a number or an abbreviated unit of measure to avoid any confusion between the superscript reference citation and an exponent.

Avoid: The 2 largest studies to date included 262 and 183 patients.

Better: The 2 largest studies to date included 26 patients2 and 18 patients.3

In the medical sciences, you should only use a direct quote if the exact wording is important.  You should be paraphrasing the information as much as possible. When paraphrasing, it is not standard practice to use page numbers, but they can be used if you feel it is necessary for clarification.

However, if you do need to refer to the exact wording used by the authors, you must put the quote in "quotation marks" and use a page number next to the in-text citation.

You put the page number in brackets directly after the reference number, with no space: 1(p6). This all goes in superscript.

Example

Rey's support of the Mad Dog theory is equivocal, and he states "I’m not defending Mad-doggery because I believe it."3(p125)

Helpful Sites

  • James Cook University Library's Research Guide is filled with citation examples for a variety of resources. 
  • Purdue OWL's AMA Guide

APA Style

7th EDITION

Please note, the 7th edition of the APA includes some changes from the previous edition. Changes are indicated below by highlight.

Paper Formatting

A title page is required for all APA Style papers, unless noted otherwise by your professor. Students should follow the guidelines fo their instructor when determining which title page format is mst appropriate to use. If not instructed otherwise, students should include the following elements on the title page. 

NOTE: Student title pages do not require a running head, unlike a professional title page. 

Title
Name 
University attended, including department or division
Course number and name
Instructor name
Assignment due date

In-Text Citations

Paraphrasing

When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Example: 
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Luna, 2020).
Luna (2020) reaches more or less the same conclusion.

Two or more sources within same parentheses

Order the citations of two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list (including citations that would otherwise shorten to et al.). Separate the citations with semicolons. 

Example: 
Several studies (Adams et al., 2019; Shumway & Shulman, 2015; Westinghouse, 2017))...


Quotations

Example:

For people with osteoarthritis, "painful joints should be moved through a full range of motion every day to maintain flexibility and to slow deterioration of cartilage" (Flores, 2019, p. 20). 
(Gecht-Silver & Duncombe, 2015, p. 210) 


More than three authors

Example:
(Smith et al., 2014, p. 203)


No author
(Title Page #)

Example: 
(Plagiarism and You 1942) 
("Five Ways to Protect Yourself" 1993)


No page number

Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation:

  • A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document.
  • An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section.
  • A short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full.

Example:

(Anderson, 2013, para. 1).

Reference List

Start the reference list on a new page after the txt and before any tables, figures, and/or appendices. Label the reference list "References," capitalized, in bold, and centered.

Double-space all reference list entries (including between and within references). 

Use a hanging indent for all references, meaning that the first line of each reference is flush left and subsequent lines are indented by 0.5 in. 

Works are listed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first listed author. 

Journal Articles

 Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title, sentence style capitalization. Journal title, volume(issue, if available), pages. URL, if no DOI available

Example:

 Ahmann, E. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17-39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31


Journal article with multiple authors

 Last name, Initials., & Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title, sentence style capitalization. Journal title, volume(issue, if available), pages. URL, if no DOI available

Example: 

 McCauley, S. M., & Christiansen, M. H. (2019). Language learning as language use: A cross-linguistic model of child language development. Psychological Review, 126(1), 1-51. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000126

When a source has twenty-two or more authors, include first twenty-one … last listed author.

Example: 

Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kitler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woolen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetman, A., . . . Joseph, D. (1996). The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bulletin of the americna Meteorological Society, 77(3), 437-471. http://doi.org/fg6rf9

Books

 Last name, Intials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Publisher's name. 

Example:

 Burgess, R. (2019). rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge. 


Books with multiple authors

 Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization (edition, if available). Publisher's name. 

Example:

 Christian, B., & Griffiths, T. (2016). algorithms to live by: The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.


Chapter in edited book

 Last name, Initials. (Year). Chapter title, sentence style capitalization. In Editor (eds.), Title, sentence style capitalization (pages). Publisher's name. 

Example:

 Weinstock, R., Leong, G., & Silva, J. A. (2003). Defining forensic psychiatry: Roles and responsibilities. In R. Rosner (Ed.), Principles and practice of forensic psychiatry (2nd ed., pp. 7-13). CRC Press. 

Court Decisions

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)

Example:

Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)


In-Text Citation 

To cite the reference in text, give the case name, in italics, and the year.

Name v. Name (Year)
(Name v. Name, Year)

Example:

Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)
(Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Federal Statutes

​In APA Style, most legal materials are cited in the standard legal citation style used for legal references across all disciplines.

A statute is a law or act passed by a legislative body. As with court decisions, statutes exist on both the federal and state levels, such as an act by Congress or by a state government. 

Name of Act, Title Source § Section Number (Year). URL

Example:

Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015). https://www.congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf


In-Text Citation 
The in-text citation format for a federal statute is similar to that for other APA Style references. Cite the name of the statute and the year.

Example:

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (2006)
(Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 2006)

Government Reports

 Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization (Report number, if available). Publisher's name.URL. 

Example:

 National Cancer Institute. (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-treatment.pdf

Law Review

 Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Journal name, volume, starting page. 

Example:

 Martin, L. H. (1991). Case worker liability for the negligent handling of child abuse reports. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 60, 191.

Newspaper Articles

 Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year, month day). Title, sentence style capitalization. Newspaper name. URL

Example:

 Guariano, B. (2017), December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2017/12/04/how-will-humanity-react-to-alien-life-psychologists-have-some-predictions

Websites

 Author or organization name. (Date of publication, if available). Webpage title. URL

Example:

 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). People at high risk of developing flu-related complications. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm


When no date is listed

 Author or organization name. (n.d.). Webpage title. URL

Example:

 National Nurses United. (n.d.). What employers should do to protect nurses from Zika. https://www.nationalnursesunited.org/pages/what-employers-should-do-to-protect-rns-from-zika

YouTube Video

Account name. (Date of publication). Video name [Video]. Webpage title. URL

Example:

Asian Boss. (2020, June 5). World’s leading vaccine expert fact-checks COVID-19 vaccine conspiracy: Stay curious #22 [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WQdLDMLrYIA

 (Asian Boss, 2020; Harvard University, 2019)

Is the example you need missing?

Contact the Library at library@delval.edu to request a new example and citation help!