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Citing Your Sources

Use these resources to aid in your citation writing process.

Chicago Style for the Humanitites

Chicago Notes and Bibliographies (NB) is also known at Chicago Humanities . 

You should use a note (endnote or footnote) each time you use a source, whether through a direct quote, paraphrase, or summary. A superscript number corresponding to a note should be placed following the end of the sentence or clause in which the source is referenced. The note begins with the appropriate number followed by a period and then a space. 

The first note for each source should include all relevant information about the source. The second note should only include the author's last name, an abbreviated title, and page number.

If you cite the same source and page  from a single source two or more times consecutively, the note should use the word “Ibid.” If you use the same source but a different page, the note should use “Ibid.” followed by a comma and the new page.

Journal Articles

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal title volume, no. (year): pages. DOI if available, otherwise URL. 


Menjivar, Cecilia. "Liminal Legality: Salvadoran and Guatemalan Immigrants' Lives in the United States." American Journal of Sociology 111, no. 4 (2006): 999-1037. doi:10.1086/499509.

Journal article with multiple authors

For works with more than 10 authors, list the first seven followed by et al.

Last name, First name, and first name Last Name. "Article Title." Journal title volume, no. (year): pages. DOI if available, otherwise URL. 


Jovanic, Boyan, and Peter L. Rousseau. "Specific Capital and Technological Variety." Journal of Human Capital 2 (Summer 2008): 129-52. doi:10.1086/590066.

Legal Documents

Legal documents are only cited in notes, not in the bibliography.

Laws and Statues

Bills or joint resolutions that have been signed into law - "public laws," or statues - are first published separately, as slip laws, and then collected in the annual bound volumes of the United States Statues at Large (abbreviated in legal style as Stat.), where they are referred to as session laws. Later they are incorporated into the United States Code (U.S.C.).

Act, Pub. L. No. Congress-Law number, Volume Code Title Page (year). 


Homeland Security Act of 2002, Pub. L. no. 107-296, 116 Stat. 2135 (2002).

Bills and Resolutions

Congressional bills (proposed laws) and resolutions are published in pamphlet form (slip bills). In citations, bills or resolutions originating in the House of Representatives are abbreviated "H.R." or "H.R. Res.," and those orginating in the Senate, "S." or "S. Res." The title of the bill (if there is one) is followed by the bill number, the congressional session, a section number (if relevant), and the year of publication in parentheses. Authors wishing to cite a bill that has since been enacted should cite it as a statue.

Title of bill. Bill number, Congress. (year).


Homeland Security Act of 2002, H.R. 5005, 107th Cong. (2002).

Cases or Court Decisions

Case names, including the abbreviation v., are set roman in notes; short forms in subsequent citation are italicized (as are case names mentioned in running text). Full citations include volume number (Arabic), abbreviated name of the report, the ordinal series number of the report (if applicable), the abbreviated name of the court (if not specified by the reporter) and the date together in parentheses, and other relevant information. A single page number designates an actual page cited, In a shortened citation, at is used to cite a particular page; absence of at implies reference to the decision as a whole. 

Case name, volume Abbreviated Report,  series number (abbreviated court name year).


United States v. Christmas, 222 F.3d 141, 145 (4th Cir. 2000).