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Citing Your Sources

Use these resources to aid in your citation writing process.

Important Note about Council of Scientific Editors

MLA APA CSE Name Year
Used in the... humanities social sciences sciences
Bibliography is called... Works Cited References References
Sample Book Citation Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s
Dilemma: A Natural History of
Four Meals
. Penguin Group, 2006.
Pollan, M. (2006). The Omnivore’s Dilemma: a natural history of four meals. New York, NY: Penguin Group. Pollan M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma: a natural history of four meals. New York, NY: Penguin Group.
Sample Journal Citation North, K., and Jean Golding.
"A Maternal Vegetarian Diet in
Pregnancy is Associated with Hypospadias." 
BJU International, vol. 85, no. 1, Wiley, Jan. 2000, pp. 107-113. Wiley Online Library
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/
doi/10.1046/j.1464-410x.2000.00436.x/full
North, K., & Golding, J. (2000). A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. BJU International85(1), 107-113. North K, Golding J. 2000. A maternal vegetarian diet in pregnancy is associated with hypospadias. BJU Int. 85(1): 107-113.

In order to find the correct abbreviation for your journal title, use the List of Title Word Abbreviations (LTWA) from the ISSN International Center.

CSE Style Citation Examples

Paraphrasing and In-Text Citations

Example: 
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Ritter 2009).

When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Example: 
Fisher (2010) reaches more or less the same conclusion.

More than one author
Example:
(Smith and Johnson 1998)
(Smith et al. 2001)

Multiple citations in the same sentence

When referencing multiple studies within the same sentence, cite in order by author's last name

Example:
(Dawson J 2006; Mondari 2010)

No author

Use the first word or first few words of the title. Use only as many words as are needed to distinguish it from other references. 

Example:
(Handbook ... 2000)

In-Text Citations

In practice, almost no scientists publishing in journals that use CSE documentation choose to quote sources. Instead, these authors paraphrase or simply cite authors. When you quote or excerpt a source, include an in-text reference to help your reader see what source you are quoting from.

Example: 
Several studies have shown that "F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana" (O'Donnell, 2004, 20).

Journal Articles

To save space, journal titles are abbreviated according to the ISO 4 standard, shortening significant words and omitting insignificant words. Read more and search the List of Title Word Abbreviations at ISSN.org.

NOTE: There is another abbreviation generation CASSI which can also be used. It does not follow CSE so remember to make the appropriate adjustments. 

Journal article 

Last name First initial. Year. Article title, sentence style capitalization. Abbreviated journal title. Volume(issue, if available):pages. URL, if no DOI available. 

Example:

Lawskowski DA. 2002. Physical and chemical proprieties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxiocol. 174:149-170. doi:10.1136/rect.330.7500.1119.

Article titles are not italicized. However, species names are italicized and capitalized normally. 

Example:

In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans.

Journal article with multiple authors

When there are 2 to 10 authors, list all of them. If there are more than 10 authors, list the first 10 followed by et al.

Last name First initial, Last name First initial, Last name First initial. Year. Article title, sentence style capitalization. Abbreviated journal title. Volume(issue, if available):pages. URL, if no DOI available.

Example:

Smart N, Fang ZY, Marwick TH. 2003. A practical guide to exercise training for heart failure patients. J Card Fail. 9(1):49-58. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12612873.

Jones AR Smith KR, Williams AB, Carter F, White RY, Little RT, Kane TR, Larosa J, Mann FD, Swartz MN, et al. 

Forthcoming articles

Last name First initial, Last name First initial, Last name First initial. Estimated date. Article title, sentence style capitalization. Abbreviated journal title. URL, if no DOI available.

Example:

Chinsembu KC, Syakalima M, Semenya SS. Forthcoming 2019 Mar. Ethnomedicinal plants used by traditional healers in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic diseases in Lusaka, Zambia. S Afr J Bot. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2015.05.009.

Blog Post

Blog post

Last name First initial. Year Month Day. Title of post, sentence style capitalization [blog]. Title of blog. [access date with abbreviated month]. URL. 

Example:

Fogarty M. 2012 Aug 14. Formatting titles on Twitter and Facebook [blog]. Grammar Girl: Quick and Dirty Tips for Better Writing. [accessed 2012 Oct 19]. http://grammar.quickanddirtytips.com/formatting-titles-on-twitter-and-facebook.aspx.

Books

Book

Last name First initial. Year. Title, sentence style capitalization. Edition, if available. Publisher's location: Publisher's name. 

Example:

Stahl SM. 2000. Essential psychopharmacology of depression and bipolar disorder. New York (NY): Cambridge University Press. 

Book with multiple authors

Last name First initial, Last name First initial. Year. Title, sentence style capitalization. Edition, if available. Publisher's location: Publisher's name. 

Example:

Schott J, Priest J. 2002. Leading antenatal classes: a practical guide. 2nd ed. Boston (MA): Books for Midwives.

Chapter in edited book

Last name First initial. Year. Chapter title, sentence style capitalization. In Editor, editors. Book title, sentence style capitalization. Publisher's location: Publisher's name. Pages. 

Example:

Anderson RJ. 2001. Acute renal failure. In Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, editors. Harrison’s principles of international medicine. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill. p. 1149-1155.

Chapter in non-edited book

Last name First initial. Year. Book title, sentence style capitalization. Publisher's location: Publisher's name. Chapter title, sentence style capitalization; Pages.

Example: 

Shakelford RT. Surgery of the alimentary tract. Philadelphia (PA): W.B. Saunders. Chapter 2, Esophagoscopy; p. 29-40.

Clinical Trial or other Technical Report

Technical report

Last name Initials (Performing organization name and address, if different from publisher). Title of report, sentence style capitalization. Edition, if available. Place of publication: publisher. Report No., if available: Contract No., if available: Grant No, if available.: Notes, if available.

Notes can include sponsoring organization if different from performing organization.

Example:

Cooper LN (Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI). 1990. Theoretical and experimental research into biological mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Washington (DC): Air Force Office of Scientific Research. Report No.: AFOSR-TR-90-0672. Sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 

Conference Proceedings

Conference paper

Authors. Date. Title of paper. In: Editors. Title of book. Number and name of conference; date of conference; place of conference. Place of publication: publisher. Location. Notes. 

Example:

Murphy J, McLean A, McGreevy P, Sheridan F, Hanly P. 2008. The use of training aids (gadgets) within equitation: meritorious or detrimental? In: Murphy J, Hennessy K, Wall P, Hanly P, editors. ISES Dublin  2008. Proceedings of the 4th ISES Conference; Dublin. Dublin (Ireland): University College Dublin. p. 29.

Customer Reviews

Online review

Author. Year Month Day. Website title [online review]. [access date]. URL. 

Example:

Jcocker99. 2017 Jan 25. GNC [online review]. [accessed 2017 Feb 21]. http://www.gnc.com/Hydroxycut-Platinum/product.jsp?productId=115799436&channel. 

Images or Tables

Personal Image

Last name First initial. Year. Title of image [photograph].

Example:

Thomas K. 2014. IMG_2947.jpg [photograph].

Screenshot

Title of webpage, sentence style capitalization. Year Month Day. Website title [screenshot]. URL. 

Example:

Calmatives for dogs. 2017 Sept 15. Google Shopping [screenshot]. https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=calmatives+for+dogs&tbm=shop&*.

Online image (29.3.7.13)

Artist's name (if available). Title of image, sentence style capitalization [image]. Year. Publisher's name. [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

Example:

Mind on fire [image]. 2013. Elizabeth Jameson's Portfolio. [accessed 2012 Oct 23]. http://www.jamesononfineart.com/large-multi-view/Art%20of%20the520Brain/1992765-1-171407.html. 

Images or tables from an article

Images or tables from journal articles are cited as journal articles. 

Example: 

Lawskowski DA. 2002. Physical and chemical proprieties of pyrethroids. Rev Environ Contam Toxiocol. 174:49-170. doi:10.1136/rect.330.7500.1119.

Online tables 

Example: 

UNAIDS. 2018. Trend of new HIV infections [table]. AIDSInfo. [accessed 15 Mar 2019]. http://aidsinfo.unaids.org/

Letters, Emails, and Conversations

CSE recommends placing reference to personal communications such as letters and conversations with the running text, not as formal end references. The nature and the source of the cited information should be identified by an appropriate statement. Place the source information within parentheses, using a term or terms to indicate clearly that the citation is not represented in the reference list. 

...and most of these meningiomas proved to be inoperable (2003 letter from RS Grant to me; unreferenced, see "Notes") while a few were not. 

The author must provide written permission to the publisher from the cited person (if living) or from the cited organization  if it is carried in a document such as an internal memorandum that is not accessible to scholars. The permission should be acknowledged in an "Acknowledgements" or a "Notes" section that follows the text of an article or is placed at the end of a book's main text; such statements may include additional details such as the reason for the communication. 

CSE Manual 29.3.7.15.3 Personal Communications

Nutrition Labels

Nutrition Label

Company name. Product name [label].

Example:

Iovate Health Sciences. Hydroxycut platinum [label].

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper article

Last name First initial. Year Month Day. Article title, sentence style capitalization. Newspaper title (edition, if available). Section, if available:beginning page of article (column no.). 

Example:

Weiss R. 2003 Apr 11. Study shows problems in cloning people: researchers find replicating primates will be harder than other mammals. Washington Post (Hom Ed.). Sect. A:12 (col. 1).

Online newspaper article

Last name First initial. Year Month Day. Article title, sentence style capitalization. Newspaper title (edition, if available). [accessed date]. URL. 

Example:

Cheshire S. 2014 Aug 6. Does oil pulling work? CNN Wire (U.S. Ed.). [accessed 28 March 2017]. http://www.cnn.com/2014/08/06/health/oil-pulling/.

Patent

Patent

Last name Initials, Last name Initials, inventors; patent holder, assignee. Date. Title of patent, sentence level capitalization. Country issuing patent Country code Patent number.  

Example:

Blanco EE, Meade JC, Richards WD, inventors; Ophthalmic Ventures, assignee. 1990 Nov 13. Surgical stapling system. United States patent US 4,969,591. 

Podcasts or Webcasts

Podcast or webcast

Narrator's name. Date first aired. Title of podcast episode, sentence-style capitalization [podcast, episode number if available]. Name of podcast show. Producer. Length. [accessed date]. URL. 

Example:

Vuolo M. 2012 July 9. Our dying words [podcast, episode 16]. Lexicon Valley. Slate. 21:10 minutes. [accessed 2012 Oct 23]. http://slate.com/articles/podcasts/lexicon_valley/2012/07/why_should_we_care.html.

Powerpoint Presentation

PowerPoint presentation

Last name First initial. Date of presentation. Title of PowerPoint, sentence style capitalization. Paper presented at: Title of class or conference. Institution (if for class). Place of class. 

Example:

Sheldon K. 2018 February 26. Learning library basics. Paper presented at: DelVal Experience I. Delaware Valley University. Doylestown, PA.

Radio Interviews

Radio interview

Last name First initial [Host]. Date first aired. Story title, sentence style capitalization [Radio broadcast episode]. Name of show. Producer. [accessed date]. URL. 

Example:

Inskeep S [Host]. 2014 July 8. Buddhist monks face jail time for July 4 fireworks display [Radio broadcast episode]. Morning Edition. NPR. [accessed 2015 Nov 28]. http://www.npr.org/2014/07/08/329731421/buddhist-monks-face-jail-time-for-july-4-fireworks-display  

Reports

Reports

The same format applies for reports sponsored by the government as for other sponsors. 

Last name First initial. Year. Report title, sentence level capitalization. Edition, if available. Publisher's location: Publisher's name. Report number, if available. 

Example:

Feller BA. 1981. Health characteristics of persons with chronic activity limitation, United States, 1979. Hyattsville (MD): National Center for Health Statistics (US). Report No.: VHS-SER-10/137.

Surveys

Surveys and Questionnaires

Last name First initial. Year Month Day. Name of survey, sentence level capitalization [survey or questionnaire]. 

Example:

Smith J. 2009 May 3. Measuring information service outcomes survey [survey]. 

Theses or Dissertations

Theses or dissertations

Author. Title of dissertation or thesis [content designator]. [Place of publication]: publisher; date

Example:

Lutz M. 1989. 1903: American nervousness and the economy of cultural change [dissertation]. [Stanford (CA)]: Stanford University.

Oviedo S. 1995. Adolescent pregnancy: voices heard in the everyday lives of pregnant teenagers [master's thesis]. [Denton (TX)]: University of North Texas.

Videos

‚ÄčOnline video, no author

Title of video, sentence style capitalization [video]. Year posted. Title of program, if available. Website title. [access date]. URL. 

Example:

How smart are animals? [video]. 2011 Feb 9. NOVA scienceNOW. PBS. [accessed 2012 March 25]. http://video.pbs.org/video/1777525840. 

Online video, with author

Author. Year posted. Title of video, sentence style capitalization [video]. Title of program or hosting platform, if available. Website title. [access date]. URL. 

Example:

National Geographic. 2008. 2 degrees warmer: ocean life in danger [video]. YouTube.com. [accessed 2017 March 25]. http://youtu.be/P-0_gDXqYeQ

See http://lynn-library.libguides.com/cse/cseavb for more details on where to locate this information. 

Websites

Website

Title of homepage, sentence style capitalization. Year. Edition, if available. Publisher's location: Publisher's name; [date updated; date accessed]. URL.

Example:

APSnet: plant pathology online. 2005. St Paul (MN): American Phytopathological Association; [accessed 2005 Jun 20]. http://www.apsnet.org/. 

Is the example you need missing?

Contact the Library at library@delval.edu to request a new example and citation help!