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Citing Your Sources

Use these resources to aid in your citation writing process.

APA Style Citation Examples

Paraphrasing and In-Text Citations

Paraphrasing

Example: 
Recent literature has examined long-run price drifts following initial public offerings and other factors (Ritter, 2009).

When the author's name appears in the sentence, it does not need to be repeated in the citation.

Example: 
Fisher (2010) reaches more or less the same conclusion.

Two or more sources within same parentheses

Order the citations of two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses alphabetically in the same order in which they appear in the reference list (including citations that would otherwise shorten to et al.). Separate the citations with semicolons. Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998)

Example: 
Several studies (Miller, 1999; Shafranske & Mahoney, 1998)...

In-Text Citations

Example: 
Several studies have shown that "F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1α and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana" (O'Donnell, 2004, p. 20).

More than one author 
Example: 
(Smith & Johnson, 2006, p. 14) 

More than six authors
Example:
(Smith et al., 2014, p. 203)

No author
(Title Page #)

Example: 
(Plagiarism and You 1942) 
("Five Ways to Protect Yourself" 1993)

No page number

Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation:

  • A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document.
  • An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section.
  • A short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full.

Example:

(Anderson, 2013, para. 1).

Journal Articles

Journal article

Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title, sentence style capitalization. Journal title, volume(issue, if available), pages. URL, if no DOI available. 

Example:

Blair, W. (1977). Americanized comic braggarts. Critical Inquiry, 4(2), 331-49. Retrieved from www.jstor.org/stable/41403188.

Journal article with multiple authors

Last name, Initials., & Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title, sentence style capitalization. Journal title, volume(issue, if available), pages. URL, if no DOI available. 

Example: 

Berge, A. J., & Rudabaugh, B. E. (1968). Returns of Kirtland’s Warblers to the breeding grounds. Bird-Banding, 39(3), 161-186. doi: 10.1037/1675-5697.64.3.157

When a source has seven or more authors, include first six … last listed author.

Example: 

McKinnon, A. C., Lagopoulos, J., Terpening, Z., Grunstein, R., Batchelor, J., Lewis, S., . . . Naismith, S. (2016). Sleep disturbance in mild cognitive impairment is associated with alterations in the brain’s default mode network. Behavioral Neuroscience, 130(3), 305-315.

Books

Book

Last name, Intials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Publisher's location: Publisher's name. 

Example:

Pollan, M. (2006). The omnivore’s dilemma: A natural history of four meals. London: Penguin.

Books with multiple authors

Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization (edition, if available). Publisher's location: Publisher's name. 

Example:

Ward, G. C., & Burns K. (2007). The war: An intimate history, 1941-1945 (4th ed.). New York: Knopf.

Chapter in edited book

Last name, Initials. (Year). Chapter title, sentence style capitalization. In Editor (eds.), Title, sentence style capitalization (pages). Publisher's location: Publisher's name. 

Example:

Gould, G. (1984). Streisand as Schwarzkopf.” In T. Page (eds.), The Glenn Gould reader (pp. 308-311). New York (NY): Vintage. 

Court Decisions

Court decisions

Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court Date)

Example:

Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis. 1972)

In-Text Citation 

To cite the reference in text, give the case name, in italics, and the year.

Name v. Name (Year)
(Name v. Name, Year)

Example:

Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)
(Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972)

Federal Statutes

Federal Statutes

Name of the Statute, Title number Source § Section number(s) (Year).

Example:

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. §§ 2601–2654 (2006).

In-Text Citation 
The in-text citation format for a federal statute is similar to that for other APA Style references. Cite the name of the statute and the year.

Example:

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (2006)
(Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 2006)

Government Reports

Government Report

Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Retrieved from URL. 

Example:

McKenna-Foster, A., Perrotti, L., Donohue, B., & Sorrows, E. (2015). American Burying Beetle (Nicrophorus americanus) survey on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Retrieved from http://www.mariamitchell.org/Nantucket_Report.pdf

Law Review

Law review article

Last name, Initials. (Year). Title, sentence style capitalization. Journal name, volume, starting page. 

Example:

Martin, L. H. (1991). Case worker liability for the negligent handling of child abuse reports. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 60, 191.

Newspaper Articles

Newspaper Articles

Last name, Initials, & Last name, Initials. (Year, month day). Title, sentence style capitalization. Newspaper name. Retrieved from URL.

Example:

McNeil, D. G., & Cobb, J. S. (2016, October 31). Columbia is hit hard by Zika, but not by Microcephaly. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/colombia-zika.html.

Websites

Websites

Author or organization name. (Date of publication, if available). Webpage title. Retrieved from URL.  

Example:

Evanston Library Board of Trustees. (2003, May 13). Evanston Public Library strategic plan.  Retrieved from http://epl.org/library /strategic-plan-00.html.

When no author is listed, omit author information from citation. Start citation with title.

Webpage title. (Date of publication, if available). Retrieved from URL. 

Example:

 Evanston Public Library strategic plan.  (2003, May 13). Retrieved from http://epl.org/library /strategic-plan-00.html. 

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