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Citing Your Sources

Use these resources to aid in your citation writing process.

Paraphrasing and In-Text Citations

Select one of the three methods below to cite in-text references:

Superscript numbers

At the end of the cited information:
Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.¹

Within the cited information:
Rakita¹ states that fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.

Italic numbers

At the end of the cited information:
Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization (1).

Within the cited information:
Rakita (1) states that fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization.

Author name and year of publication

At the end of the cited information:
Fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization (Rakita, 2004).

Within the cited information:
Rakita states that fluoridated water as well as various fluoride products such as toothpaste provide fluoride ions necessary for remineralization (2004). 

For two authors use "and": Rakita and Smith. For more than two authors use "et al.": Rakita et al.

Books

Single author

Last name, Initial. Title, edition if available; Publisher's name: Publisher's location, year. 

Example:

Chang, R. General Chemistry: The Essential Concepts, 3rd ed.; McGraw-Hill: Boston, 2003.

Edited book

Last name, Initial. Chapter Title. In Book Title; Editor, Ed.; Publisher's name: Publisher's location, year; volume if available; pages.

Example:

Gbalint-Kurti, G. G. Wavepacket Theory of Photodissociation and Reactive Scattering. In Advances in Chemical Physics; Rice, S. A., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 2004; Vol. 128; p 257.

Book in a series

Last name, Initial. Chapter Title. In Book Title; Editor, Ed.; Publisher's name: Publisher's location, year; volume; pages.

Example:

Gbalint-Kurti, G. G. Wavepacket Theory of Photodissociation and Reactive Scattering. In Advances in Chemical Physics; Rice, S. A., Ed.; Wiley: New York, 2004; Vol. 128; p 257.

Article in a reference book

Article Title. Book Title, edition if available; Publisher's name: Publisher's location, year; volume; pages.

Example:

Powder Metallurgy. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 3rd ed.; Wiley: New York, 1982; Vol. 19, pp 28-62.

Websites

Websites

Webpage Title. URL (accessed date).

Example:

National Library of Medicine. Environmental Health and Toxicology: Specialized Information Services. http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro.html (accessed Aug 23, 2004).